6. Models & Momentum

Though not universally available or practiced, models and programs that support learning for design as activism do exist already. Some have actually been around for decades, or are now the focus of recent initiatives in higher education. With examples sourced primarily from members of our working group and the book Public Interest Design Educational Guidebook (2018), the following serves as snapshots of what these existing models are and summarizes how they can contribute to design activism education.

Community Design Centers

In the heyday of community design movement in the 1960s, university-based community design centers became a model for community engagement that filled a void where typical professional services failed to reach the communities in need.

Throughout the United States today, there are still more than 60 community design centers, including university-based centers, full-service planning and design practices, and non-profit organizations42. Many of these centers were set up in city planning and architecture programs, such as the Pratt Center for Community Development (founded in 1963) and more recently the Center for Public Interest Design in the School of Architecture at the Portland State University. There are also those set up to address particular challenges or support specific populations. For instance, the Small Center for Collaborative Design at Tulane University was founded in 2005 after Hurricane Katrina. The Detroit Collaborative Design Center at the University of Detroit Mercy was founded in 1994 to work with the community and philanthropic organizations to rebuild the city. The Design and Planning Assistance Center at the University of New Mexico was established to deliver design and planning services to low-income communities in the state.

Centers with close associations with landscape architecture programs or with a focus on landscape-scale projects do also exist, such as the Hamer Center for Community Design at Penn State University and the University of Arkansas Community Design Center with a particular focus on rural development. These centers often function on external grants and gifts and are financially independent or semi-dependent from the universities. By engaging in real-life projects with community and civic partners, they provide opportunities for students and faculty to develop experiences and long-term collaboration with external partners. By sustaining these relationships through funded projects, the centers fill an important void in a typical teaching schedule organized around academic terms that don’t often respond to the nature of the social and political process at the community or municipal level. They serve as a vehicle that supports the educational and public mission of universities.

Community-University Partnership

Besides having university-based community design centers, there are other ways through which collaboration with community partners can be established to provide students and faculty with opportunities to put their skills and knowledge to use and learn directly from the communities. Founded in 1987, the East St. Louis Action Research Project (ESLARP) has been a well-respected initiative led by students, faculty, and staff, first at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, and now at the Southern Illinois University. ESLARP facilitates service projects in support of the underserved communities in East St. Louis. Starting with technical assistance that eventually led to an emphasis on local organizational capacity building for high-poverty communities, the partnership has supported projects that benefitted the communities and also the development of community planning methods for professionals.

While many community-university partnerships, such as ESLARP, tend to focus on a specific community or location over an extended period of time, there are also other models of collaboration. Sustainable City Year is a program at the University of Oregon that invites communities throughout Oregon to apply for a year-long partnership with the university that enables students and faculty to focus a year of academic coursework and research with the community. The University of Washington began a similar program called Living City Year in 2016, inspired by the Oregon program. Aside from programs that connect one university to one or multiple communities, there are models that enable multiple universities to work together. Founded in 1986 and active through the 1990s, the University-Oakland Metropolitan Forum was a partnership of five colleges and universities with communities in Oakland, California that supported community-building programs in economic development, education, and neighborhood revitalization. These programs provide invaluable resources for the underserved communities as well as opportunities for students and faculty to develop and apply their skills and knowledge to real-life issues.

Fellowships & Internships

Besides programs that facilitate collaboration and partnership at an institutional level, fellowships and internships serve as a mechanism that enables individual faculty and students to develop their own projects and partnerships. Founded in 2000, the Enterprise Rose Fellowship is one of the best-known fellowship programs nationally in design leadership. Offered by Enterprise Community Partners, a national nonprofit focusing on affordable housing development, the program provides two-year positions for emerging architecture designers or socially-engaged arts and cultural practitioners to work with hosting local community development organizations on projects that result in sustainable and affordable communities. The fellowship is open to designers with an accredited degree in architecture or landscape architecture.

Within universities, the Center for Public Interest Design at the Portland State University offers fellowships to interested students to participate in a public interest design project outside the classroom under the guidance of a faculty member. Through such an arrangement, the fellowship also provides support for faculty involvement. Since 2014, more than forty student fellows have been accepted into the program who in turn worked on a variety of projects through the Center43. With support from Cummings Foundation and MASS Design Group, the Ada Louise Huxtable Fellowship in civic engagement and service-learning enables student fellows at the Boston Architectural College (BAC) to work as interns at the MASS Design Group and gain experiences in project delivery44.

In landscape architecture, the LAF Fellowship for Innovation and Leadership was established in 2017 to “foster transformational leadership capacity and support innovation to advance the field of landscape architecture.” Each year, a group of mid-career and senior-level fellowships are awarded based on their proposed projects that “demonstrate the potential to bring about impactful change to the environment and humanity and have the capacity to grow the leadership potential of landscape architecture.” Each cohort also includes the National Olmsted Scholars who are recent graduates from accredited degree programs. Programs like these provide opportunities for students to gain experience and confidence in social service and leadership. For programs designed for recent graduates or emerging practitioners, they provide a stepping stone and opportunities for graduating students to pursue their passion and interest outside the conventional career tracks.


Service-learning is a recognized teaching and learning process that integrates community service with instruction and reflection45. In landscape architecture, the service-learning curriculum, including studios, has served as an important vehicle for design programs to work with community organizations and public agencies. By working directly with community stakeholders and public clients, students gain different perspectives in terms of how problems are perceived and defined. They develop an understanding of and skills in co-creation, negotiation, and collaboration. In return, the students can offer fresh perspectives, social and technical support, and a source of energy and passion. In a studio setting, service-learning also provides opportunities for critical reflections on design methods and professional practice that have traditionally been based on expert knowledge.

At Cornell University, the Rust to Green (R2G) Capstone Studio focuses on catalyzing community-driven placemaking in upstate New York cities46. In 2013, the studio produced a study that identifies creative placemaking as a strategy for driving the physical, social, and economic transformation of the district. In 2015, the studio worked with the Oneida Square neighborhood in Utica, New York, to co-create a flower festival. At the University of New Mexico, the Landscape Architecture program offers an Indigenous Design Studio, not only to engage the local indigenous communities but also to attract diversity into their program47. The studio has partnered with the Indigenous Design and Planning Institute under the Design and Planning Assistance Center on its projects. The Institute was founded to inform and support education in indigenous design and planning.

At the University of Kansas, Dotte Agency is a multi-disciplinary design collaborative with a focus on improving public health. It collaborates with a variety of groups, including housing and health organizations, community development corporations, foundations, and different units on campus, on projects ranging from walkability audits to mobile grocers. Focusing on improving food access and physical activity in underserved communities, the projects bring together students and faculty in architecture, design, business, behavioral science, public health, and pharmacy. The collaborative was awarded the Public Scholarship Award by the International Association for Research on Service Learning and Community Engagement in 2019.

Field Schools & Programs

Taking a step beyond typical service-learning activities, field programs include studio courses and other instructional activities that take place in a local community where students live and work for an extended period of time. Through the extended stay, students and faculty are fully immersed in the local setting, working with the local stakeholders. The experience enables them to gain insights and cultural perspectives that would not be possible otherwise. In a field studio, students have to adapt to the local setting, learn about local customs and sometimes language, and work directly with local stakeholders. Unlike typical study abroad programs that may or may not entail extensive interactions with the local communities, the main focus of the field studios is to engage the local actors and processes.

“We have a new generation of people, students who are craving for the kind of education.” Leann Andrew, Traction

At the University of Washington, Seattle, the Informal Urban Communities Initiative (IUCI) brought students to work on a series of projects in an informal settlement in Lima, Peru. Working with partners in Global Health typically first through a remote studio in the Winter Quarter and an on-site program in the Summer Quarter, the studio projects have ranged from house gardens to fog water farms to address the needs for clean water, sanitation, neighborhood improvement, and community capacity. Started in Lima, the initiative has since carried out similar projects in Iquitos, Peru, and locations in Cambodia and Nepal, using the same vehicle and pedagogy of field studios. The studios have provided opportunities for students to interact and learn from the local communities.

Also at the University of Washington but housed in the Department of Architecture, the StoreFront Studio serves as another model in providing opportunities for students with extensive fieldwork experiences. The studio, conducted each year, works with small communities in the state of Washington focusing on the revitalization of main streets. The BLC Field School is a project of the Building-Landscape-Culture Collaborative Project at the University of Wisconsin Milwaukee and Madison. The field school takes students into local neighborhoods to collect and explore stories of places and placemaking. It provides students with an immersive experience in documenting the built environment and cultural landscapes and learning how to write history “from the ground up.”

Student Initiatives

Apart from opportunities available through the university, students’ own initiatives can also play an important role in learning about activism, leadership, and community engagement. At the University of Oregon, DesignBridge was a student-organized community design/build initiative that provided design service to community clients and local nonprofits. With the participation of students from architecture and landscape architecture, the program took on a range of projects including activation of urban vacant spaces, a farm shed, a bike shelter, and a mobile tool trailer for people experiencing homelessness. The program filled an important void in the curriculum and provided opportunities for students from different disciplines to work together with community and nonprofit clients.

Students’ initiatives can sometimes morph into longer-term projects after graduation. One of the nation’s oldest and longest-running community design nonprofits, Environmental Works, was founded initially as a community design center by architecture students at the University of Washington in 1970. For 50 years, EW has worked with communities in the State of Washington on designing affordable housing and community facilities through both fee-for-service projects and no-cost service. The organization was recently joined by Barker Landscape Architects to become a multidisciplinary operation.

There are many recent examples of successful practices that initially emerged as initiatives by students or recent graduates. They include Rebar (San Francisco), MASS Design Group (Boston), Kounkuey Design Initiative (Los Angeles), Interboro Partners (New York and Detroit), and Assemble (London), an award-winning, multidisciplinary collective across the fields of art, architecture, and design. These successful examples demonstrate the possibility for emerging groups to go beyond the status quo in creating new forms of practice.

University Extensions

“We need to redefine our purpose to serve local communities, especially land-grant universities, with a mission to serve people.” Samuel Dennis, Jr., University of Wisconsin, Madison

For many public land-grant universities in the United States, cooperative extensions have long served as an important vehicle linking universities with local communities. The Cooperative Extension System has been specifically designed to make research-based knowledge accessible to communities. In many states, these programs focus on agriculture and food, home and family, environment, community economic development, and youth48. Historically, each county in all 50 states had a local extension office. Currently, there are still 2,900 extension offices across the country. At the University of Wisconsin-Madison, for instance, the UW Extension Community Design Team brings planning and design professionals to communities and provide them with resources to make decisions about their future.

At West Virginia University, the WVU Extension Service offers educational programs and technical assistance to communities to improve their social and economic well-being. The Community Engagement Lab in particular provides services in design charrettes, workshops, mapping, and surveys that support design and planning at regional, community, and site scales. At the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, the culture of design activism and community engagement in the department comes in part from its collaboration with the UMass Amherst Design Center49. The Center supports a wide range of planning and urban design projects and research focused on addressing the challenges facing cities and towns in Massachusetts and beyond.

Recognized as serving the mandated mission of land-grant universities, the extension programs can be leveraged to provide students and faculty with opportunities for public service and community engagement. Many of these programs already have a long history of working with local communities. While the existing extension programs tend to have a strong focus and orientation on technical assistance, some have already developed a focus on empowerment and community capacity building. As not every land grant university has such operation or service currently, there are opportunities for more initiatives to emerge.

Charrettes & Competitions

Charrettes and competitions have been a long-standing practice in the design profession and are used commonly in educational contexts. Innovative, short-term, and often requiring less longer-term investment, charrettes and competitions can be an effective way to experiment with an emerging topic and mobilize participation by students, faculty, and even professionals. The events can also raise public awareness and discussion. In recent years, prominent competitions such as Rebuild by Design and Resilience by Design have encouraged the profession to explore issues of climate resilience and disaster preparedness. Despite their shortcomings in terms of effecting policy change50, these competitions did generate interest and attention within the schools and the professional community.

Besides generating ideas and attention, charrettes and competitions can also be used to build capacity, relationships, and potential partnerships among the stakeholders. Open Space Seattle 2100 was one such project that produced sustaining results with a profound political and physical impact on the city. Through a city-wide design charrette held in 2006 with 23 teams led by local professionals and landscape architecture students and faculty at the University of Washington, the project brought together community groups, civic organizers, activists, and professionals to produce a 100-year vision for open space in Seattle. The guiding principles were endorsed by the City Council. The process helped form a network of grassroots support that translated into the passage of parks and green space levy in 2008 with funding support for green infrastructure.

Also in Seattle, a series of workshops and charrettes influenced the current redevelopment of its downtown waterfront. In 2003, the Allied Arts of Seattle, a long-time civic/municipal arts organization, organized a Waterfront Design Collaborative to envision the future of the Seattle Central Waterfront following the demolition of the Alaskan Way Viaduct. With the participation of seven teams of professionals and students, the process spurted the City to organize a citywide charrette open to all citizens in the following years. 22 teams of citizens, students, and professionals came up with a wide range of proposals with the key themes forming the basis for the waterfront redesign. Both Open Space Seattle 2100 and the City-sponsored waterfront charrettes provided opportunities for students and faculty involvement and contributed to substantive outcomes on the ground.

Workshops & Events

Aside from large-scale competitions or charrettes, smaller-scale workshops and other events also allow students to engage in activism sometimes by organizing those events themselves. Design as Protest (DAP), for instance, was a nationwide action held on January 20th, 2017 to bring together activists, designers, and community organizers to explore how design can address issues of injustice in society. Around the United States, 12 gatherings were organized. In Seattle, the DAP event was organized by a group of landscape architecture students at the University of Washington. Over 200 students and professionals across different disciplines signed up to form groups that addressed issues ranging from affordable housing to fair policing.

Recurring events are a great model for student engagement. The HOPES Conference is an annual event inaugurated in 1994 and organized independently by a student group at the University of Oregon. Through panel discussions, workshops, exhibitions, and excursions, the conference brings together students, faculty, community members, and visiting scholars across different disciplines to explore the relationship between ecology and various design disciplines51. Events such as DAP and HOPES provide students with opportunities to engage in interdisciplinary collaboration, develop experiences in event organizing, and participate in collective learning in key issues and challenges.

For schools that operate on a semester schedule, weeklong workshops during the semester provide relief from the regular studios and allow students to engage in an intensive investigation of specific issues. At the University of Southern California, the Landscape Architecture program initiated an annual, one-week workshop after the mid-term reviews. Students from all years would participate in teams of six to seven to carry out applied research working with community stakeholders. Similarly, using Design Sprint as a model, the Design Week is a weeklong (4 days) program held every other year at North Carolina State University that involves all levels of students in a project or a series of projects with outside guest instructors. The focus in 2019, for example, was to apply rapid creativity to climate change challenges.

Program Partnerships

Aside from the typical community-university partnerships, the collaboration between different institutions and even units with the same university can also result in the desired synergy and open up new opportunities. In Japan, the Haruhiko GOTO Laboratory at Waseda University has been a pioneering force in community design in the country. In 2015, the lab teamed up with Nara Medical University to combine expertise in community design, historical conservation, and medical care for elders to revive a historical district in the ancient city of Nara. Named Planning Institute in Medicine-based Town, the project presents an integrated approach to address issues of aging, the decline of historic neighborhoods, and community development.

At Iowa State University, the Environmental Justice in Prisons Project is a partnership between the College of Design and the Iowa Correctional Institute for Women (ICIW). The project began in 2010 with a plan to develop the 30-acre site based on principles of humane and therapeutic landscape design that improves environmental health and resilience. Led by Associate Professor Julie Stevens, students at Iowa State constructed multipurpose outdoor classrooms and restorative space for staff and officers. They also planted trees and native prairie flowers and grasses. The project enabled the students to examine their own personal ethics when working with diverse populations, especially those incarcerated52. The project won an ASLA student award for excellence in community service in 2015.

The Landscape Education for Democracy (LED) project is a partnership between five European landscape architecture faculties and the LE:NOTRE Institute for promoting awareness and empowering young design and planning professionals to become more active in shaping democratic change. Started in 2016, the project has offered online seminars that are free and open to students at any institution as well as the general public. The LED course 2020 includes 13 online course sessions available to students at any institution. Themes include: Democratic landscape transformation, democratic landscape analysis, collaborative visioning and goal setting, collaborative design, evaluation and future agenda setting.

Program Transformation

In most schools around the country, mechanisms such as charrettes, workshops, events, and students initiatives are ways to complement existing curricula in providing opportunities for students to engage in activism and gain important experiences outside the classrooms. These short-terms mechanisms are particularly useful when institutional or curricular changes often take a long process to materialize. However, it is also possible that a degree program can be reorganized or redirected to support student engagement in activism and addressing critical social and environmental challenges.

At Penn State University, the strategic planning process in the Department of Landscape Architecture has led to a focus on social and environmental justice, with the department’s mission framed as “great work grounded in a commitment to environmental and social good.” At the University of Washington, Seattle, a strategic plan developed in 2000 identified urban ecological design as the strategic focus for the department. The implementation of the plan involved all aspects of the program operation including curricular changes, selection of studio focus, faculty recruitment, and development of research initiatives. Building on the strength of the program in community engagement and social justice focus, the department further incorporates design activism as one of its five focal areas in an update to the strategic plan in 201553.

At the Illinois Institute of Technology, design activism was not a tradition for the Landscape Architecture + Urbanism program. In fact, the school had a checkered history with the neighborhood in Chicago’s Southside. However, building on an improved relationship with the neighborhood and working with its faculty and professional community, the program recently undertook a strategic shift to focus on the public realm, including working with the local community. The modest size of the program and coherence of the faculty allowed the program to restructure its curriculum and develop specific studio focus and pedagogical approach based on the strategic move54. The shift is already paying dividends—with Jazz Fence, the program’s first community-university partnership project in a long time, winning an ASLA student award in 2018.

At the City College of New York, although the landscape architecture program does not set its focus on design activism per se, it has also restructured its curriculum, including history, theory, technical classes, and studios, to address critical contemporary challenges. Taking advantage of its location and resources in New York City, the program collaborates with the staff of the NYC Urban Field Station to organize field trips for its urban ecology course, in which students get to hear directly from scientists and citizens. The Bio-Design Studio addresses urban agriculture and stormwater, using bio-design as a concept to introduce students to scientific knowledge beyond the comfort zone of design55.

The feasibility of program transformation relies significantly on both the support of the faculty and program leadership. For some programs, external factors including support from the university may also play an important role. But even if the stars may not always align right away or the resources for implementation may not be in place, some steps can always happen first, such as a strategic plan, improved relationship with communities, or experiments with course design and content, as evident in the examples above.

Certificate Programs

Certificate programs including those at the graduate level and even outside academic programs can provide additional paths for students to pursue their interest in design activism and acquire specific skills and expertise. At Portland State University, the Center for Public Interest Design offers Graduate Certificate in Public Interest Design to both graduate students and professionals. The program consists of 18 credit hours of course options pulled from multiple disciplines at the university, including architecture, business, environmental science and management, public affairs, and public studies and planning. This includes a minimum of 4 credit hours of fieldwork that provide students with opportunities for actions and engagement within a community or through a practicum at a firm or organization.

The College of Design at North Carolina State University also offers a Public Interest Design Certificate program. The program is open to students, professionals, and even the public with related experience of education. Unlike the Portland State University program, the coursework for the NC State programs draws more heavily from architecture and landscape architecture, including studio courses, reflecting the strength and resources of the College. The faculty members include those from architecture, landscape architecture, art + design, and industrial and graphic design.

Run by Design Corps and hosted by universities around the United States, Public Interest Design Institute (PIDI) is a training program open to practitioners as well as students. Developed based on the SEED (Social, Economic, and Environmental Design) methodology. Successful participants earn certification as a SEED professional. Practicing professionals in architecture and landscape architecture also earn Continued Education Units or Professional Development Hours. The program has been hosted by programs around the country at different times during a year. The local host selects from a list of speakers who are leading practitioners in public interest design. Since 2011, the institute has been held in more than twenty states in the United States.

New (Degree) Programs?

Are new degree programs in design activism viable or desirable? Given the declining enrollment in many professional design programs already, new degree programs may be perceived as competing with the existing programs. On the other hand, the declining enrollment in traditional programs may precisely provide the motivation to think more creatively about bringing more students into the field through new feeder programs or allow students to pursue a specialization or advanced learning at the graduate level. This is an area that requires fresh and robust investigations.

Some schools have already taken steps to explore new directions. At Parsons School of Design, the MS in Design and Urban Ecologies is a relatively recent program that combines urban planning, policy, urban design, activism, and community practice. Similar to a design program, the program is studio-based, complemented by a series of required coursework in history, theory, and methods, culminating in a thesis project. The faculty members included those in existing programs including urban policy and health, urban studies, architecture, urban planning, and community development. The location in New York City allows the program to access the city as a laboratory for learning.

In recent years, placemaking has emerged as a focus of academic research and practice as well as new programs. The Pratt Institute in New York City offers a MS degree in Urban Placemaking and Management under the School of Architecture. The 40-credit program focuses on applied research through studios, theses, capstones, demonstration projects, research initiatives, partnerships, and public programs. The program offers three areas of focus: (1) community-based design, (2) parks, open space, and green infrastructure, and (3) transportation and main street management. Arizona State University has also been working on programs focusing on creative placemaking, including the Studio for Creativity, Place and Equitable Communities, funded by the Kresge Foundation and ArtPlace America.

From time to time, initiatives may emerge to start a landscape architecture program from scratch. Those moments provide opportunities to experiment with fresh ideas. Founded in 2004, Department of Landscape Architecture at Chung Yuan University, Taiwan is one such example. With a strong emphasis on community engagement, community design is introduced in the first year of the four-year bachelor program in the early years. Ecologies and plants are taught not in the classroom but in the field in tribal communities. In the last year of the program, students were required to spend a semester abroad in designated locations in Asia, Europe, North America, and more recently Australia. The innovation of the program has been reflected in the strength of the student work and its impact on the communities it has worked with.

Models, Momentum & Multiple Pathways

As the above discussion and examples indicate, there is already a wide variety of program models and mechanisms that support the integration of design activism into landscape architecture education. Although not all models are explicit about activism per se, they embody features of design activism, including community engagement, advocacy, partnership, and leadership development.

It is important to note that the wide variety of programs and models does not necessarily suggest that these approaches are universally accepted or supported. Many of the programs and initiatives thrive largely and sometimes solely with the commitment of individual faculty, students, and community partners. Although some of these models are gaining greater institutional recognition, such as community engagement and community-university partnerships, many of them still require greater support and investments from the institutions they belong to. Whether they are currently supported or not, long-term care and support are necessary for the program and initiatives to sustain over time. Besides, as not every program has adopted these models or mechanisms, there is potential to more programs and initiatives to be developed, to build on the momentum of this work.

The wide variety of models and mechanisms, as illustrated here, suggest that there are multiple pathways to better integrate design activism into landscape architecture education. Depending on the socio-economic condition of the region, the institutional context, the resources at hand, and the expertise of faculty and staff, some models may be more suitable or applicable than others. Lastly, it is important to note that although the models and examples included present a spectrum of approaches, they do not represent all the possibilities. Like other subjects in education, models of design activism education require constant innovations and critical self-reflection to stay relevant.



  1. Source: https://www.communitydesign.org/about
  2. Source: http://www.centerforpublicinterestdesign.org/student-fellows
  3. Benjamin Peterson, “Advancing Resiliency: The Huxtable Fellowship in Civic Engagement and Service Learning,” in Public Interest Design Educational Guidebook: Curricula, Strategies, and SEED Academic Case Studies, ed. Lisa M. Abendroth and Bryan Bell (London and New York: Routledge, 2019), 171-177.
  4. Tom Angotti, Cheryl Dobble, and Paula Horrigan. Service-Learning in Design and Planning: Educating at the Boundaries (Oakland, CA: New Village Press, 2011)
  5. Paula Horrigan, ““Making” Change Together: Rust to Green’s Placemaking Praxis,” in Public Interest Design Education Guidebook: Curricula, Strategies, and SEED Academic Case Studies, eds. Lisa M. Abendroth and Bryan Bell (London and New York: Routledge, 2018), 182-188.
  6. Interview with Katya Crawford (December 5, 2019).
  7. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooperative_State_Research,_Education,_and_Extension_Service
  8. Interview with Robert Ryan (November 4, 2019).
  9. See a critique of Rebuild by Design by Billy Fleming: https://placesjournal.org/article/design-and-the-green-new-deal/
  10. Source: https://hopes.uoregon.edu/about-us/
  11. Julie Stevens, “Reflecting Through Razor Wire: The Environmental Justice in Prisons Project,” Public Interest Design Education Guidebook: Curricula, Strategies, and SEED Academic Case Studies, eds. Lisa M. Abendroth and Bryan Bell (London and New York: Routledge, 2018), 220-225.
  12. The principal author for this report served as the department chair at UW from 2009 to 2017 and as the Graduate Program Coordinator from 2005 to 2009.
  13. Interview with Ron Henderson (November 15, 2019).
  14. Interview with Denise Hoffman Brandt (December 11, 2019).